10 Cybersecurity Terms You Must Know

Cybersecurity is the term that has taken the world by storm. From the recent ransom attacks to the photo leaks of celebs, nothing seems secure in the digital realm.

But what’s more annoying is not knowing of the technical jargon involved with cybersecurity. While you might be aware of the usual stuff like virus and malware, we’ll walk you through the various terms and types of cyberattacks. 

Nevermind, these have been in explained in the easiest manner and you’ll be a pro in just a read. But before we proceed with the various terms, let’s start with understanding the main subject.

Cybersecurity involves taking measures to stay safe of unauthorised access having malicious intent to manipulate or steal your private data. So to stay safe of a cyber attack, there are a number of solutions, with the most common being security antivirus.

But to know the best solution, its imperative to first understand the real problem. Once you do, you’ll know how to deal with them. So let’s start off!

1. Botnet

A botnet, short for robot and network, is a network of devices, such as PCs, mobiles, and servers. By themselves, botnets are helpful technologies.

They perform many of the tasks that keep websites operating. Malicious botnets, however, are another story. These botnets can gain access to your machine through vulnerabilities and are controlled by malware in order to perform cyberattacks.

2. Data breach

The result of a cyberattack, a data breach is a security incident that allows cybercriminals to gain unauthorized access to private and often sensitive data.

The data can be copied, stolen, transmitted, viewed and then used for nefarious purposes, which can wreak havoc on businesses and personal lives.

3. Firewall

Originally, the term firewall referred to a physical wall used to contain or slow the spread of a fire within a building, but today it more often than not is used as a cybersecurity term and refers to a network security system designed to prevent unauthorized access to private networks connected to the Internet.

Firewalls work by monitoring and analyzing incoming and outgoing network traffic. Using a set of pre-established rules, the firewall filters out network traffic that looks suspicious. 

4. Malware

Malware is software that is specifically designed to cause damage to data and systems or to gain unauthorized access to a computer network. 

Cyberattackers write the malicious code that comprises the different forms of malware, and the term itself is an umbrella term for all types of malware including viruses, Trojans, ransomware, rootkits, spyware etc.

5. Pharming 

Not to be confused with phishing (see below), pharming is a cyberattack technique that redirects an Internet site’s traffic to a fake and malicious site that mimics the original site. 

Redirects are done without users even knowing it and without their consent. To achieve redirects, hackers either exploit vulnerabilities in domain name server (DNS) software or gain unauthorized access to a user’s computer and change IP information stored there so that the user is redirected to undesirable websites. The hacker then proceeds to obtain the user’s personal information such as usernames, passwords, account numbers etc.

6. Phishing 

While not considered as advanced a cyberattack technique as pharming, phishing also tries to get users to visit undesirable websites and reveal sensitive information, but it attempts to do so by sending fictitious emails from ostensibly legitimate companies.

Spear phishing is a form of phishing, but unlike regular phishing, which makes broad, mass attacks, spear-phishing uses personal information to target a specific person. The personal information is often obtained through social media sites or even previous phishing attempts. 

7. Ransomware

Ransomware is one of the most prolific types of malware as cybercriminals can use it to earn thousands of dollars, usually payable in Bitcoin. 

Once a system is infected with ransomware, the malware will encrypt the victim’s files and then demand a ransom fee from the victim in order to restore access to the data. No ransom payment means no access.

8. Spyware

Spyware refers to any software that has an additional functionality designed to covertly monitor your online behaviour. It is installed without your consent or knowledge and its goal is to secretly gather sensitive data such as passwords, credit card details, browsing habits, etc, The information is then passed on to other parties who use it to extort the victim of the attack.

9. Trojans

Like its namesake, Trojan computer viruses use a disguise to trick targets into providing access to what should be a secure area, or in the case of cyberattacks, secure data.

Hackers use social engineering techniques to fool their targets into loading and then executing the Trojans on their computers. The Trojans are usually disguised as legitimate software, but once downloaded and executed, they attempt to steal or cause damage to your data, computer or network.

10. Zero-day

This rather ominous-sounding term refers to cyber threats that exploit a potentially serious vulnerability in a software that was previously unknown. They are extremely dangerous because only the attacker knows about them.

This is why behavioural and heuristic malware detection methods are so important in antivirus software. Only these detection methods are capable of detecting zero-day threats.

Wrapping Up

Feel better? Why not? Awareness is the first step towards protecting yourself, and understanding cybersecurity terms are the first step towards building awareness. The next step is installing antivirus software on your PC.  Without antivirus software, your data and privacy are exposed to hackers.

For the privacy protection, you can download the free computer protection software with real-time threat protection and virus removal features, or more advanced antivirus protection, which has added features such as camera and microphone protection etc., in addition to standard features. The thing is… don’t wait. Get protection today. The threat to your privacy is real.